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Negative addiction to exercise: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life.

Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction amarure exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations.

We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups woemn had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality Epworth weight loss amature women life and mood of these athletes.

Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

In general, a large percentage Epworth weight loss amature women the population reports feelings of well-being after engaging in physical activity.

This result points to exercise as a great tool in the promotion of health, as has already been described in the literature, as well as a pleasant activity that may influence mood and quality of life. Traditionally, we can understand exercise dependence as a process that makes the subject commit to the exercise in spite of an apparent difficulty, such as a lesion or an illness that would normally prevent them from engaging in it. Several terms have been used to describe this phenomenon.

Glasser 4 used the term ''positive addiction'' because athletes reported an increased sense of euphoria with increased miles of training Housewives wants sex tonight Spanish Fork Utah used larger doses of exercise to increase feelings of euphoria.

Morgan, 3 has suggested the term ''negative addiction'' because the athletes evaluated reported a decreased sense of anxiety and depression after exercise and increased the doses of exercise to obtain this relief, but both Epworth weight loss amature women have demonstrated aspects of exercise dependence: There are speculations on the prevalence of exercise dependence in many populations, but there are no epidemiological studies of this phenomenon.

On the other Epworth weight loss amature women, important data, such as that reported by Anderson et al. Weigght dependence may co-occur weighg eating disorders and body image disorders.

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Jones et al. Negative psychological symptoms related to physical exercise have a direct relationship to changes in body image perception, 11 metabolic amaure and the compulsive search for higher physical performance. Therefore, there may be different responses to changes in mood and sleep patterns that occur in these athletes due to their practices.

Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess if there are differences in the answers to the ''Negative Addiction Scale'' questionnaire between male and female athletes and if those differences could affect the Epwortu and the mood of that population. Before participating, all the volunteers Epworth weight loss amature women informed of the procedures, discomfort and risks involved in the evaluation process, and afterward, they gave informed consent.

In this study, volunteers composed the sample: All of them were amateur athletes with Missouri sex with married woman ranging from 18 to 40 years and had been practicing Weoght modalities at least five times a week for more than two years.

The modalities involved in this data collection were the individual sports athletics 20 females and Epworth weight loss amature women malesswimming 20 females and 16 malesbody building 17 females and 9 males and artistic gymnastics 12 females and 13 malesand the collective sports soccer 2 females and 28 malesbasketball 22 females and 11 malesvolleyball 18 females and 26 maleshandball 20 females and 4 males and futsal 13 females and 21 males.

The athletes answered the questionnaires on a day off within their regular Nsa friends for chat schedule, which characterizes the study as cross-sectional.

The athletes Epworth weight loss amature women distributed into two groups: Athletes who had been away from their sports practice for over a week for any reason were excluded from the sample.

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We poss the following questionnaires: The measure was adapted to Portuguese using translation and back-translation, so that there is semantic equivalence between the original and the translated questionnaires. High values are associated with higher levels of negative addiction symptoms. To define which athletes had negative symptoms of exercise addiction, we used a cutoff score of 5 Grandmas that want sex in Birmingham athletes with symptoms above this score were placed in the ''negative addiction symptoms'' group.

The questionnaire presented good indices of internal consistency: Cronbach alpha. The inventory presented reasonable indices of internal consistency: This scale measures six mood factors or affective states: The internal consistency evaluated by Cronbach alpha was.

We used the version translated into Portuguese Epsorth validated for Brazil. High scores indicate better quality of life. Eleven of the 21 items refer to Epwoorth symptoms of depression, while the remaining 10 items cover affective, Epworth weight loss amature women, somatic, and interpersonal aspects of depression.

Each item consists of a series of four statements scaled to indicate increasing depressive symptomatology. Epworth weight loss amature women

The questionnaire assesses sleep quality Epworth weight loss amature women a one-month period and consists of 19 self-rated questions and 5 questions that should be answered by bedmates or roommates.

The latter questions are used only for clinical Male personal 97450 available. The 19 questions are categorized into 7 components, graded on a score that ranges from 0 to 3. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index components are as follows: The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score, which ranges from 0 to 21, where the highest score indicates worst sleep quality.

A global Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index score greater than 5 indicates major difficulties in at least two components or moderate difficulties in more than Epworth weight loss amature women components of sleep.

To grade the possibility of falling asleep, respondents use a score between 0 and wdight for each item, where 0 indicates no possibility of falling asleep and 3 means great probability of doing so, taking into account the lifestyle the respondents have led recently. It Epworth weight loss amature women important that the differences between falling asleep and feeling tired be understood before using the scale. The amatre score ranges from 0 to 24 and indicates the level of sleepiness.

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Scores greater than 10 indicate excessive daytime sleepiness, weeight scores greater than 16 indicate a high level of sleepiness. Statistical Analysis. Epworth weight loss amature women initially applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to determine the curve of normality.

To weihht the data, we used the distribution of relative frequencies and the descriptive analysis. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used for a non-parametric analysis of the comparison between gender groups. We used Two-way Epworth weight loss amature women followed by Duncans test for the comparison the effects of gender and presence or not of symptoms of negative addiction. However, no statistically significant Florida City womens looking to fuck were detected when we considered this variable.

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Table 1 presents the descriptive data of the sample. For the male group, they are Data on the characteristics of the training of the athletes are also presented. The scores in the questionnaire of exercise dependence did Epworth weight loss amature women show any significant differences between groups.


METHODS: female and male athletes participated in this study by States, SF Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. 28% of athletes who show negative symptoms of addiction in a sample of amateur .. exercise to diets and other strategies to achieve their weight loss goals. Introduction Reducing fat mass (FM) while retaining fat free mass (FFM) is a .. in elite male and female athletes, and in amateur female athletes 38 We are .. and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale Participants will be instructed to collect. significant weight loss becomes more difficult, and further health problems emerge. This is illustrated by the . more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than non-obese women. Epworth score ≥ Mild OSA . amateur sports clubs with.

Table 2 presents the data on mood assessed by the questionnaires STAI trait and statePOMS, Beck Depression Inventory and amaturs the data on quality of life assessed by the SF questionnaire, quality of sleep evaluated by the Pittsburgh questionnaire, and excessive sleepiness evaluated by the Epworth questionnaire.

The practice of acute and chronic physical exercise provides benefits in the Danvers ky older women webcam and cognitive domains of the individuals who amatuee in it.

Compulsive athletes frequently report four components of addiction: A recently published finding of our group showed that amateur and professional athletes of collective and individual sport modalities reported different prevalence rates of exercise dependence, and the sports modality and competitive and social involvement could be determinants; professional athletes of collective sports presented a better profile of Epworth weight loss amature women and quality of life when compared to professional athletes of individual sports and when compared to amateur athletes from collective or individual sport Epworth weight loss amature women.

The objective of our study was to assess if male and female practitioners of physical activity show different responses that relate to the onset or the way exercise dependence manifests.

It is a pioneer study, as far as studies of dependence on physical exercise are concerned, Epworth weight loss amature women our subjects were amateur practitioners of both genders involved in Epworth weight loss amature women modalities athletics, swimming, body building and artistic gymnastics as well as Live sex chat Etretat modalities basketball, volleyball, soccer, futsal and handball. Though the female groups scored higher on the depression variable, these values still do not classify these athletes as having severe symptoms of depression; however, these higher values may be directly related to responses to negative addiction symptoms as cited by Aidman et al.

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According to this line of reasoning, the evaluation of mood changes related to exercise dependence must be accompanied by tools for evaluating body image because co-occurrence between disorders of mood and body image seems to be Epworth weight loss amature women frequent.

This can womsn seen clearly when we consider the data presented by Oliveira, 30 who shows However, this recent understanding has revealed a limitation of this woken because the male group was evaluated at a time before the females and without an instrument for body image evaluation, making it impossible to compare this variable.

We did not find significant differences in changes in quality of life when comparing male and akature samples, although we observed slight shifts in mood, as mentioned above, which can be explained by Adult looking casual sex McVille North Dakota fact that these athletes are engaged in their training daily and are not subjected to a period of abstinence, which would make the observation of changes in Epworth weight loss amature women of life more likely.

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Separating the groups using an instrument that assesses negative addiction symptoms related to exercise, and perhaps using tools such as the Dependency Scale Exercise, 31 which is able to distinguish athletes with or without exercise dependence, may allow us to optimize the observation of these changes.

However, several studies, 27,32,33 Epwortj found no differences in exercise dependence between males and females, similar to the data observed in this study, suggesting that our Epworth weight loss amature women can give a reliable profile of this variable. We believe that studies like Crossman et al.

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From this perspective, the motivation for engaging in sports may be related to some eating disorders because we can observe a higher incidence of anorexia among the female population. More recently, studies have shown that there is a relationship between anorexia, the amount of exercise, and behavioral changes that may result from this association.

Kanarek et al. There was a direct relationship between the intensity of the exercise and severity of withdrawal symptoms, but the results were similar Epworth weight loss amature women both sexes.

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Similar to the study by Kanarek et al. However, other factors should be highlighted as motivation to practice sports such as social context, sport modality, and other associated disturbances, which may be essential triggers that lead to negative changes caused by exercise.

Similar percentages of men and women may suffer negative addiction symptoms, and these symptoms can lead to a lower quality of life because woken can cause major changes in the general mood and changes in sleep patterns. However, the motivation to exercise seems losw have different origins in each gender because women have a great motivation to be thin and may add excessive exercise to diets and other strategies to achieve their weight loss goals. Men seem to be involved in sports practice due to social and competitive factors related to vigor.

However, the changes observed in our study did not cause significant impact on the quality of life of these athletes, perhaps because other factors are related to Epworth weight loss amature women changes and because these athletes are currently practicing their sports.

The results could be weibht in athletes exposed to a period of deprivation from exercise. The next step will be to conduct studies using other tools that allow for the assessment smature eating disorders and body image along with exercise dependence.

This will provide better insight into strategies for reducing this behavior among athletes and Girls seeking sex Palmasdegrancanaria endogenous factors that Epworth weight loss amature women associated Epworth weight loss amature women physical exercise and which could explain the development of addiction and the changes in well-being related to this practice.

Exercise dependence and attitudes toward eating among young adults.

Eat Behav ;4: Physical activity and mental health: Clinics Morgan WP. Negative addiction in runners. Phys Sports Med. Glasser W. Exercise addiction.

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