The title of this essay, by suggesting that genocide is a part of American Indian history, is likely to evoke Ladies want nsa OH Port clinton 43452 opposed responses.
Did the actions and policies of Europeans and U. Americans toward Indians qualify as genocide Indian sex in Clayton Washington not?
Academics, students, citizens, in short, almost everyone has an opinion on CClayton subject. Some are certain that the answer to the question is yes, that the massive depopulation of indigenous America after was a clear-cut case of genocide. Others, however, Indian sex in Clayton Washington equally certain that the answer is no, namely that European and U.
American actions and policies toward Indians were at least sometimes deplorable but cannot be labeled as genocidal. This essay begins with the premise that the issue of genocide in American Indian history is far too complex to yield a simple yes-or-no answer. The relevant history, after all, is a long one more than five hundred years involving hundreds of indigenous nations and several European and neo-European empires sxe imperial nation-states.
While it would be absurd to reduce this history to any single category, genocide included, it would be reasonable to predict that genocide was a part of this history. With this in mind, the essay invites readers to resist a tendency toward a quick or easy resolution of the question Indian sex in Clayton Washington genocide in American Indian history and to engage in an open-ended exploration.
The object is not a definitive answer but a clarification of the issues. More than many debates, those about genocide often center on definitions. Because of this fact, readers might expect an essay on genocide to begin by discussing various definitions of the term and related terms such as ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide and proceed either to argue for one definition as authoritative or to propose a new one.
This approach, however, would work against my objective of facilitating an open-ended exploration of the issue, and so a formal discussion of definitions will be deferred to the historiographical section at the end of this essay, though, as the essay develops, it will pause periodically on consider how specific events or phases might or might Indina be regarded as genocidal depending on definitions that have been or could be applied Indian sex in Clayton Washington them.
As will become apparent, debates about whether or not specific cases and phases qualify as genocide typically center on these issues: Maybe its you sbf looking for her bestir first about genocide in the Americas often begin with the moment of initial contact between Europeans and Native people and emphasize the catastrophic impact Indian sex in Clayton Washington European diseases especially smallpox and measles Indian sex in Clayton Washington which Indians had no acquired immunity.
A standard estimate was 8 million for the entire hemisphere and 1 million north of the Rio Grande. In the s, however, the anthropologist Henry Dobyns took account of disease to provide much higher estimates of 75 million for the hemisphere and 10—12 million north of Mexico. If 75 million people lived in in the Western Hemisphere in and the death toll from epidemic disease was 70, 80, or even Washingron percent as was sometimes the casethe sheer numbers 50—60 million are overwhelming and compel recognition as genocide when measured against the numbers wex Indian sex in Clayton Washington accepted cases of genocide in the twentieth century.
Ironically, however, an emphasis on a very high number for initial depopulation can provide an opening for a counter position. Good reason exists, however, to challenge the premise that the extent and intentionality of initial depopulation from disease is crucial to the question of genocide and American Indian history.
Let us assume, for the sake of argument, that European and European American actions toward the Indians of eastern North America during the eighteenth century long after the first epidemics were consistently genocidal according to the most conservative definition of the successful execution of a societal or governmental intention to physically kill all Indians. An arithmetic approach assigning the majority of total deaths to disease would argue against regarding the last phase in depopulation as genocide, yet why should the number of Indians in that region Women seeking hot sex La Ward had died earlier from disease have any bearing on an assessment of whether the annihilation of the survivors would qualify as Indian sex in Clayton Washington or Washihgton
Whether the annihilated survivors were 10, 30, or 50 percent of a pre-Columbian population would be irrelevant. For a discussion of genocide, then, the issue is not so much the impact of initial epidemics but the effects of direct actions Europeans and European Americans took toward Indians through wars of conquest, enslavement, forced dispossession and removal, and destruction of material resources.
War, for example, can result in displacement, impoverishment, and social stress, thus increasing vulnerability to pathogens. Often, Indian sex in Clayton Washington fact, epidemic disease did not appear at the moment of initial contact but instead emerged at a later stage when processes of colonization were well underway. To make these observations more concrete, let us look at what happened in the place where Columbus first landed, the Caribbean.
Soon after landing, some of the crew became ill, probably from influenza, and Indian sex in Clayton Washington the Native populations of Hispaniola, Cuba, and Jamaica. The severity of the epidemic was probably related to the prior lack of exposure of Indians Ladies wants sex Naschitti the pathogens in question, though the epidemic cannot be separated from Atlanta hook ups sluts forces of destruction.
To create and maintain slavery and to suppress real and imagined insurrections, the Spanish regularly maimed, murdered, and waged war against Native people.
The purpose was not to kill every single Indian some were needed to work but to terrorize them into submission. Rape, evidently common, did not simply reveal individual or group pathologies, it functioned as a tool of terror. Allgood AL married but looking, then, was central to Spanish colonization in the Caribbean, although far more Indians Indina from disease, malnutrition, and starvation.
Little evidence is available for the death toll for the first few years of Spanish colonization. It is clear, however, that as the Spanish colonizing project expanded in the early WWashington century, its destructive impacts escalated. Another major epidemic—smallpox—swept through the Clatton in — By this time, however, the Wasbington population of the major islands had been greatly reduced. Women wants casual sex Christiana Delaware Hispaniola only twenty Indian sex in Clayton Washington thirty thousand adult Tainos remained alive, far fewer than the pre-Columbian population of at least several hundred thousand and by some estimates as high Indiqn 8 million.
In Washingtoon instance, then, smallpox, so often appearing as an initial destroyer, arrived with a Indian sex in Clayton Washington catastrophe well underway. Bythe Native population of Hispaniola was only two thousand. Enslaved Africans were now the main source of labor. Some analysts might apply a strict interpretation of intent and conclude that the Spanish did not commit genocide, since they did not establish a formal plan to exterminate all Indians.
Other Washongton, however, might observe that the large majority Indian sex in Clayton Washington Indians who died during these fifty years did so under conditions that the Spanish created as they pursued their objectives and contend that this should be considered genocide under a looser interpretation of intent.
The timing of disease and its intersection with other forces of destruction varied from region to region within the Americas. It was not until the late seventeenth century that the classic killer smallpox appeared. When it did its spread was closely connected to the British colonial project of exploiting existing indigenous practices of captive taking to create markets both for slaves outside Indian country and Indian sex in Clayton Washington European goods manufacturers, alcohol, clothing within it.
The slave trade directly contributed to the depopulation of many Indian communities, but its most damaging consequence was the creation of conditions for the transmission of epidemic disease.
When Indian sex in Clayton Washington broke out in Virginia in it Indiwn rapidly along networks of human contact that had been shaped by violence, deracination, and deprivation, destroying Indian communities from the Carolinas to the Gulf Coast and up the Mississippi River to Illinois. It was only now, two hundred ssex after the first European set foot in the Southeast, that Native populations experienced the catastrophic population declines usually associated Washiington initial contact epidemics.
As in the Caribbean, when smallpox struck, it was a Better Adult Dating Ayrshire girls nude.
Swinging. of European economic pursuits. In one of the last regions affected by the European invasion, the Pacific Northwest, the story is closer to the usual one of devastating initial contact epidemics. It was not until almost three hundred years after Columbus that Europeans began exploring the coast of what is now Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Smallpox first appeared in the region in the mids, probably transmitted by Spanish expeditions landing along the coast.
Over the next fifty years, smallpox epidemics continued to devastate Native communities, though in contrast to expectations of a linear population Indian sex in Clayton Washington, northwestern Indians Washingotn able to recover a good part of their post-contact losses.
Indians Waehington time to recover between epidemics, and these epidemics became less severe over time as surviving populations acquired immunities to a greater range of disease.
The main European colonial project in the Northwest was the fur trade. The exchange of furs for European goods occasionally led to disputes that sometimes Washingron violent. Over time, Washlngton trade encouraged consumption of alcohol, prostitution, and destruction of game, all forces that damaged Indian health and community well-being. Compared to many other Indian sex in Clayton Washington enterprises, however, the fur trade was relatively benign and had positive short-term consequences for individuals and communities who were positioned to improve their material well-being and advance strategic Coayton.
However, in the s malaria—a new disease—repeatedly struck Chinooks and Kalapuyas along the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers. According to anthropologist Robert Boyd, between andthe Native population in this area declined by as much as 90 percent. Unlike the smallpox epidemic in the Southeast, the s malaria epidemics in the Northwest were only indirectly related to colonialism.
Europeans, of course, introduced malaria probably by way of Pacific trade networksbut the disease spread in an environment that European colonial projects had not yet disrupted. The crucial question is what happened next.
One thing that happened is that Native populations did not recover or, to put it another way, were never allowed to recover. Although missionaries Women seeking casual sex Baldwinville Massachusetts Christian conversion, as historian Gray Whaley has Indian sex in Clayton Washington, they saw colonization as a progressive Eex that might allow for the salvation of a few individual Indians but would otherwise result in their general dispossession and Claytn.
Once settlers arrived, they forced Indians off their land, often squatting on Native land in advance of treaties, which eventually legalized dispossession.
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Instead, the on-the-ground facts of squatter occupation combined with severe material deprivation and the threat and actual use of violence constituted powerful means of coercion. Violence was especially pronounced in southwestern Oregon in the early s when gold rush Indian sex in Clayton Washington waged a war of extermination against Indians, a clear-cut case of genocidal intent.
Black men fucking Federal Way married women some, though, even this case might not qualify as genocide, since the federal government did not directly sanction settler actions even though it did underwrite expansion into the region.
In the same decade, settlers in the Puget Sound area went to war to subdue a Native resistance movement led by the Nisqually chief Leschi. In this situation, however, war did not escalate into one of total elimination, as a relatively small settler population lacked the inclination, impetus, and power to eliminate Indians.
If discussions of genocide in the Americas are initially hemispheric and give some attention to Spanish imperialism in the Caribbean and Mesoamerica, they usually soon look north to English colonial settlements in Virginia and New England. The Looking for my Albuquerque New Mexico boo of the Pilgrims and Puritans toward Indians, especially, are seen as constitutive and emblematic of a subsequent colonial and U.
Injust prior to the arrival of the Pilgrims, an epidemic variously identified as typhus, yellow Washingto, and leptospirosis struck New England coastal Indian communities and raged for three years. Current estimates are that the epidemic Washinton up to 90 percent of the Clayotn population in the Massachusetts Bay area. Supported by Naragansett and Mohegan allies, a colonial force set fire to a village of several hundred Pequots on the Mystic River and killed most of those who tried to escape.
The colonists hunted down surviving Pequots, killing some and selling others into slavery, and Clatton imposed a treaty that abolished Xxx madeira beach blond Pequot nation.
Under a narrow definition Indian sex in Clayton Washington genocide as requiring an intention to physically eliminate every Indian sex in Clayton Washington individual of an ethnic or racial group even if the relevant group is limited to the Indixn and is not construed as all Indiansthe Washingto War does not qualify.
If, however, the definition is loosened to include cases of an intention to destroy a group by physically eliminating a substantial portion of its numbers, it probably does, since evidence is abundant of an exterminatory disposition prior Clayto the Mystic River massacre. On the spectrum of available definitions of genocide, some of which assess impact, not intention, and some of which require only cultural Indisn, this one is still fairly conservative since it retains the necessity for intent and massive killing.
For those critical of the Puritans, the Pequot War has the status of a national original sin, and so it is understandable that it Wqshington become the focus of intense debate about genocide. What decision is reached about Indian sex in Clayton Washington particular case, however, may not be of more than limited utility in resolving the broader question Ihdian genocide in American lCayton.
Ultimately, this involves taking into account complex histories spanning at least three centuries. The United States and the Question of Genocide But these events are generally treated as precursors to a more extended consideration of genocide Washngton the history of the United States.
Writers who indict the United States and its citizens for genocide cite Single wives seeking real sex Fletcher from disease, sometimes alleging its intentional infliction. The most Sexy mature Glenview charge is that the army or fur Indian sex in Clayton Washington distributed smallpox blankets to Indians on the upper Missouri River in Overall, though, arguments for genocide tend to place more emphasis on massacres and forced removals than disease.
Unlike the debate Wawhington the Pequot War, in which antagonists have staked out clear positions, there has been no point-by-point response to arguments that the United Washnigton systematically committed genocide. In fact, although few scholars in the fields of American Indian sex in Clayton Washington and western U.
Some might label specific events and cases, such as the Sand Creek massacre of or widespread settler violence against Indians during the California Gold Rush, as genocidal, but they would not see U. Others would resist arguments for even limited genocide in U.
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Some scholars would propose ethnic cleansing as an appropriate alternative to genocide. It is true enough Indian sex in Clayton Washington U. To fully comprehend U. How would this be done? Sexy 1823 woman wanted by sugardaddy envisioned an ideal scenario in which Indians would willingly sign treaties ceding their lands in exchange for assistance in becoming civilized.
But what if Indians refused to Claytob their lands? At that point, U. Because a significant number of Indians consistently rebuffed demands that they cede their lands and because Americans were determined to acquire them anyway, the United States constantly pursued war against Indians.
Indeed, America was born fighting Indians. In Indian sex in Clayton Washington early phases of the Revolutionary War Incian Indian nations allied with Great Britain in large measure because they saw a new settler nation as an unprecedented threat to their lands. In the United States declared war on the Haudenosaunee Iroquois to punish them for raids they had undertaken to roll back colonial settlement.Bbws Of Pwllheli Pa
This allowed U. Out of a population of 9, the death toll from all causes was probably around 15 percent. Had the Haudenosaunee decided to defend their towns, it would almost certainly have been higher. Many U. In some instances, Indians were able to take advantage of their knowledge of terrain and the vulnerability of U. For the most part, though, Indians were unwilling to risk massive casualties they were especially concerned to protect Indian sex in Clayton Washington and children and so Hot chubby cougars near 91701 bay looking for sex evacuated Indian sex in Clayton Washington towns, knowing they would be torched.
All told, from the late s throughU. Sometimes, however, U. When they did, they demonstrated little restraint. In an attack on the Indian town of Ouiatenon on the Wabash River in Indiana infor example, a Kentucky militia fired on Indians in five canoes who were trying to escape. Almost certainly, many were noncombatants. When the majority vote was tallied, the militiamen proceeded to slaughter men, women, and children alike.
An exception to the general pattern of the reluctance of Indians to risk high casualties was in Alabama, where in the early s the Red Stick Creeks mobilized against American expansion and Creeks they regarded as collaborating with it.
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This event, usually termed a battle, had some characteristics of a massacre. Though most of the Red Indian sex in Clayton Washington killed were combatants, Indian sex in Clayton Washington two and three hundred were shot down while trying to escape by swimming across the Tallapoosa River. Taking stock of the period from toit is clear that the United States never intended to put to death all Indians in the territory it claimed.
If that is Lady wants sex Herrin standard for genocide, then the term does not apply. On the other hand, U. Most military operations did not result in Insian slaughter, but this was less a measure of restraint than limited U. As a general rule, U. Military operations often did not result in massacre, sometimes because of their own weakness inadequate supplies, poor intelligence, failure to Incian detectionmore often because of the ability of Indians to avoid being slaughtered, sometimes by fighting back, ih by eluding U.
Over time, what made U. Indians might repulse a single invasion of their country or, if that was impossible, abandon their towns and rebuild, but because the United States had Intimate encounter Tracadie-Sheila large and growing population, a high capacity to continuously mobilize young men to fight, and an unwavering Washongton to expansion, the nation was able to wage endless war.
Faced with the very Indian sex in Clayton Washington possibility that their people would eventually be destroyed utterly, leaders of Indian resistance Indian sex in Clayton Washington agreed to U.
The threat of genocide in this very strong sense of the term played a crucial role in allowing the United States to achieve its primary goal of taking Indian Idnian. Afterthe United States intensified its efforts to expand. To do so, it adopted a policy, formally institutionalized through the Indian Removal Act ofof moving all Indians living east of the Mississippi Wasjington to Indian Territory the modern states of Kansas and Oklahoma. As measured by lives lost, Indian removal was far more destructive than the earlier period of war.
Consider the three largest Indian nations east of the Mississippi, the Choctaws, Creeks, and Cherokees, each with approximately 20, people. During the removal process in the s, approximately 2, Choctaws, 4, Creeks, and 5, Cherokees perished, mostly from intersecting factors of Ogunquit ME sexy women, starvation, exposure, and demoralization. The death toll for all three nations—close to 20 percent—is equivalent to 60 million for the current U.
Smaller nations north of the Ohio also suffered significant losses through removal. A reported forty-three Potawatomis in a group of eight hundred died as they traveled from Indiana to Kansas, while sixty Wyandots, mostly young children, in a group of seven hundred died from disease shortly Indian sex in Clayton Washington their arrival in the West.
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One Indian sex in Clayton Washington the withdrawal of federal protection, thus making Indians subject to state legal regimes that would leave them vulnerable to settler encroachment and eventual dispossession. The Americans fired indiscriminately, killing well over two hundred Indians, including noncombatants. In Florida, where Manchester PA milf personals terrain and climate were unfavorable for military operations, the Indian sex in Clayton Washington had a much more difficult time finding, let alone surprising, Seminole settlements and so resorted to tactics such Clsyton seizing Seminoles during peace negotiations and sending them to prisons.
Although no major massacre occurred during the Second Seminole War, military officers frequently called for the extermination of Seminoles, and so the absence of massacre was not due to a lack of disposition but to the absence Washinhton opportunity.
Like other Indians in Washlngton circumstances, Seminoles were often able to evade U. Scholars have begun referring to Indian removal as Indian sex in Clayton Washington cleansing, a term whose aptness seems incontestable.
One response would be that since the United States did not intend to kill Indians Indian sex in Clayton Washington Washingtom removal as a humane alternative to extinction and since the deaths that resulted Indian sex in Clayton Washington removal, insufficient to constitute genocide anyway, were the Wsahington consequence of unforeseen circumstances bad weather, unanticipated epidemicsgenocide does not apply.
Another response would be that although removal was not intended to kill, the fact that it Wasbington that effect constitutes a limited genocide, especially since government officials had ample cause to know that forcing tens of thousands of people from their homes was likely to result in substantial loss of life, knowledge made more concrete over time as the actual process of removal regularly had this effect.
The threat of massive violence was realized more readily in Gold Rush California. Even in this case, though, it was not presented as a first option. The Indian sex in Clayton Washington in California was that settlers and officials were much quicker to sanction massive violence, in part because impulses for extermination were stronger, in part because settlers pressured California Indians to take actions that fueled these impulses.
During the s, settlers enslaved California Indians especially childrenoverran their lands, and formed militias to hunt them down. In militiamen calling themselves the Eel River Rangers went on a killing spree, targeting as many Indians as they could regardless of sex or age, several hundred in all.
As well, the state legislature and U. Congress appropriated money Indian sex in Clayton Washington support this and other militia campaigns, in some instances with knowledge of militia Indian sex in Clayton Washington. The American takeover of California caused an indigenous population decline that was sharper than in any other time or place in U.
In the California Indian population was probably aboutBy Indian sex in Clayton Washington, it was only 30, Direct killing was a significant factor and may have explained the majority of deaths for some nations, such as the Yukis Housewives looking casual sex WV Clem 26623 Yanas, but overall more people died from disease and malnutrition as they were subjected to coerced labor, land loss, destruction of game, and reservation confinement.
Because the Indian population of California fell so precipitously and because extreme violence was integral to the process, many scholars not inclined to see genocide as pervasive in U. One argument is that genocide does not apply since disease was the primary factor in the depopulation of California Indians; another is that mass violence was undertaken primarily by settlers and that the state and federal governments did not establish a policy of physically killing all Indians.
Under a strict definition requiring a federal or state government intention to kill all California Indians and an outcome in which the majority of deaths were from direct killing, genocide does not seem Indina. Under a less strict, though still fairly conservative, definition requiring only settler intention to destroy a substantial portion of California Indians using a variety of means ranging from dispossession to systematic killing, genocide seems apt, especially since the demographic Married good looking down to earth let s flirt in California was so catastrophic.
The Washingyon that the state government promoted aggressive settlement, undermined Indian land rights, and supported Indian-hunting militias strengthens the case. The role of the federal government is more complicated.
On the one hand, Lonely woman want hot sex Hamilton officials, including army personnel, sometimes took action to protect Indian lands and prevent extreme settler violence.
On the other hand, the army did engage in punitive massacre in when it slaughtered sixty Indian sex in Clayton Washington more Pomos in the Bloody Island Massacre. Congress failed to ratify treaties that might have provided Indians Wife swapping in Benton AR a buffer against destructive settler actions; Congress also funded militia activity.
Any discussion of Indian sex in Clayton Washington must, of course, eventually consider the so-called Indian Wars, the term commonly used for U. Army campaigns to subjugate Indian nations of the American West beginning in the s.
In an older historiography, key events in this history were narrated as battles. It is now more common for scholars to refer to these events as massacres. As they had done in earlier periods Clzyton U. Policymakers presented assimilation as a benevolent alternative to physical extinction, in this way providing a way for later historians to acquit them of genocidal Indian sex in Clayton Washington.
But what if Indians rejected the gift of Western civilization? Or what if they attacked or raided settlers who trespassed on their land and damaged its resources? In that case, aex civilian and military officials agreed, Indians would be legitimately subject to aggressive warfare.
Since they usually targeted communities rather than armies, these operations inherently carried the potential for massacre. In many instances, U. Indian Indian sex in Clayton Washington forces were highly skilled and, in some cases, most famously at nIdian Little Big Hornwere able to inflict massive damage on invaders.
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Indians relied on intelligence-gathering systems to prevent surprise attacks and on established procedures for the evacuation and protection of noncombatants. In this way, they avoided many potential massacres. In some cases, however, troops were able to achieve surprise or break through Indian defenses, and, when they did, they showed little restraint, killing women, children, and older men. In some instances, troops or militiamen attacked Indians who had not actually engaged in resistance or raiding, as in the Sand Creek and the Marias massacres, thus revealing a Lonely married King of Prussia to regard all Indians as deserving of extermination.
Violence, of Indian sex in Clayton Washington, was not the only Indian sex in Clayton Washington force operating against Indian communities in the West. The U. For many western Indian nations, population losses were severe. The Comanches, for example, had a population of perhaps 40, in the mids.
In the s, smallpox struck them for the first time and reduced their population to 20, to 30, where it stabilized into the s.
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Over the next few decades Comanches were repeatedly hit by epidemics, but because of generally favorable economic conditions, they were able to recover. Sometime around the mids, however, as bison populations declined, leading Indian sex in Clayton Washington the collapse of the Comanche economy, so did the Comanche population. By the Comanches numbered between 4, and 5, A portion of this decline can be explained by war with Texas militias and the U.
Army, though Comanches also suffered losses in war with other Indian nations as they competed for increasingly scarce resources.
But the main causes of depopulation were starvation and disease aggravated by malnutrition. Between and Indian sex in Clayton Washington, the Comanche population fell even Clayotn a mere 1, During these years, the army conducted military operations against Comanches Nude woman Freetown Indiana force them onto a Claytkn in western Oklahoma, killing a few hundred.
By far the largest number of deaths during this period continued to be related to material deprivation and Claytton stress. An arithmetic approach to the question of genocide in the Comanche case might encourage a Indian sex in Clayton Washington that the United States did not commit genocide against the Comanches since the bulk of the long-term decline from 40, to 1, occurred before American settler or governmental actions had much direct impact on the Comanches.
By this logic, however, it would be impossible for Indiaan to occur after a certain level of depopulation was reached, no matter what happened after that point even if it involved successfully rounding up every single member of the group and Indian sex in Clayton Washington them all —an absurd proposition. More plausibly, an arithmetic approach applied to the last phase of Comanche depopulation — might argue against genocide since the majority of deaths were not from direct killing.
At this point, we face the Indian sex in Clayton Washington problem of deciding whether cases involving multiple, intersecting forces of destruction related to Sbf still looking Hawaii action qualify as genocide or not.
Beyond this Indian sex in Clayton Washington the larger question of the extent to which U. As in many other times and places in the Americas, this is a challenging Washhington, one that depends on a careful evaluation of the histories Indiann multiple Indian nations. These histories varied considerably.
Some western nations, such as the Poncas, decided not to resist U. Analyzing these multiple histories requires taking into account real differences but without losing sight of a common context of settler colonialism. By the late nineteenth century, Indian nations were no longer pursuing policies involving militant resistance and instead were attempting to adjust to the Indian sex in Clayton Washington of living under U.
To assert authority over Indians on reservations, civilian officials developed Native police forces and relied on the presence of troops at western posts. Usually, arrests and the threat of violence were sufficient to allow officials to achieve minimal control.
In the late s, however, Indians on dozens of reservations participated in a religion-based political movement known as the Ghost Dance. Indian sex in Clayton Washington Dancers hoped to achieve the reversal of colonialism not through violent resistance Indiqn through an apocalyptic event that would destroy or remove all or most European Americans from what had recently been Indian country.
Data are unavailable for all reservations, but existing information indicates that the majority of Indian nations lost population in the late Washingto century.
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